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A Journey Into Inclusivity

Arran Ross-Paterson speaking at WEBdeLDN in June, 2017
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About this talk

In this session, we’ll talk about making your accessibility have value for your users.


Hello, my name is Arran. Oh no, sorry. Arran. Welcome to WebDeLDN. Yes, that is London in British Sign Language. Yeah. It was a surprising one, and I did double-check it a lot of times. Welcome, thank you, Christiana and the team, for having me. This is the first time I've done this talk so slightly nerve-wracking and a bit experimental. I'm sure it will change by the next time I do it. My name is Arran as I just said. First of all, if you could put your hands up if you'd be up for volunteering and have good eyesight. Is that all? Come on, keep your hands up. And also I need more than that. No, you've got glasses. No, I need somebody who can see good without glasses. Okay, alright. But for everybody who's wondering, these are called sim specs. They're designed to simulate different kinds of visual impairments. There's five different kinds amongst you, and they cover some of the most common kinds of visual impairment that you'll find in the UK. Some of these are age related, whereas as some of these are conditions that people would have throughout their entire lives. I can't remember exactly which ones are which, off the top of my head, but if people really want to know that particular one, I can check later. But there's mixtures of things like cataracts, general age deterioration, the tunnel vision right over there, and one other one which I've forgotten the name of, but was was quite common. Kind of, shall we say, motion blurriness. Some of you will see me quite okay right now, and some of you probably not much at all. Glasses on. - [Student] Ah, it's difficult! - Yes, life's hard for some people. That makes the point of this talk. What was I gonna say? So some of you will be able to find reading something like this relatively okay, some of you won't. Some of you will find seeing people moving around, like, if I wander back and forth a bit, that will be tricky. But it's different impairments for the different glasses. Now, come the break, I'll collect them back up, and if anybody else wants to try them, hopefully lots of people can. But I'd like a few of you to wear them for the entire length of the talk. Yes. So, I'd like to start with a little story. About, oh, too long now, a decade or so ago, when I was in my early 20s, I lived in Sydney, Australia. I lived in one of the cookie cutter suburbs that spring up all over western Australia, and, next slide, every few days, I'd head into the city centre. Public transport in Sydney is less than can be desired at times, and when I'd come to go home of an evening, I'd be faced with about a five mile walk down the Great Western Highway here, which, you know, shouldn't be that big an issue. Now, I could drive, but I don't have a licence, because I'm from London, and there's never been any point. I could get a taxi, but it would have got really expensive, and I wouldn't be able to do it very often. So I was limited from using the highway as intended by educational means and economic means. But I'm still using the highway. I was young, I was physically able, so walking a little over five miles down a dirt path along here, not really a big issue. Now, I might trip up on some stones, some branches, but I can still use it, not as intended. I'm not driving down here in my silver car, but I'm still able to use it. Either junction, there's no traffic lights, because they don't expect people to be walking along here. They expect every Australian to drive. And as you notice, there's no lights on this side of the road. There's only lights on this side, because, again, they only really catering for people driving here. Also, they've got lights attached to their cars. But again, I'm young, I'm able, I don't care about crossing an eight-lane highway and running in between traffic. Yeah, so I was stupid, and also tended to drink a lot. As I say, there's not many lights. But I'm going along here, 11 o'clock, 12 o'clock at night, can't even see my own feet. So, the likelihood of tripping on things and stuff gets quite high. But again, it's not a huge problem. At least until it is, because it's Australia, and everything's trying to kill you. One night I'm walking along, and something attacked my foot. Now, you might be wondering what attacked my foot. I don't know, I couldn't see it. All I know is after limping several miles home, there's a lot of blood and small chunks missing out of my foot. You know, this highway was accessible to me. It wasn't a particularly fun experience to use it, particularly after having bits of my foot ravaged off. But I could use it. If this is software, it'll pass tests. Alright? Now, I could use it, but if I was less abled, it would not be an option for me at all. If you're less able bodied, it was not accessible. If you lacked education, you couldn't use it as intended. If you're encumbered, imagine if you're a parent who doesn't own a car and you've got to push your kid in a pram. It's not gonna happen. This was a rough, bumpy, well, path is a strong word. It was dirt with rocks and sticks. So if you're encumbered, it's not usable. If you were in a wheelchair, it's completely unusable. If you're visually impaired, you would die in traffic. And if you're impoverished, you do what I'm doing and walking in the road. So this was accessible to some, but not to others. But even to some who it was accessible to, it was far from inclusive. It was not a great experience. And we tend to often design software like this. Oh there, it was I'm going to bring the story a little bit closer to home. That's a bit of an extreme example, as many things in Australia are. But if you're just looking at a high street in London, there's little things which make a high street accessible. I really wanted the right pictures here, but I failed at getting nice pictures that would also be good on a big screen. So, I'm going to take some people shouting out some suggestions here. If you're on an average high street, things that make the high street more accessible to people. Any suggestions? - [Student] Ramps. - Ramps, good. Anything else? There's quite a few things. Yeah, the bumps as you're approaching traffic lights that predominantly signals blind and visually impaired people that's where they are, and you get a few different kinds of bumps as well to indicate how close they are, although not all councils use them and not all in the same way. Because there's actually standards for it! But they don't get used. But we know that story. Any other suggestions? - Yep, although I kind of wouldn't include it on high street, but definitely accurate. It just wasn't in my frame of mind. Benches. If you're elderly, making a long journey to the shops, want to have a sit and a rest along the way. But all these things are also inaccessible. So, first suggestion, ramps. A ramp, if you've got a wheelchair or a pram, great thing. But a ramp, say, winter time, when it's wet and icy and you're elderly, well, that's you slipping and breaking a hip and possibly dying. I have quite bad balance after numerous injuries, and the fact is, come winter time, on some of the slopes that you get at the edge of the pavement, I find them nerve-wracking. I will go and cross where there isn't a ramp at the side of the curb where it's just the flat surface down, because I'm worried about slipping. Those things are negative to me. They make the space more accessible for some, and less accessible to others. So if you were designing a pavement in, I don't know, Lisbon, great idea. If you're designing pavement is Oslo, you're gonna kill people. What was the other suggestions we had? The bumps. No, actually they're just good. They can make life a little bit more difficult for wheelchairs and prams and people carrying suitcases and stuff, but it's pretty minor. It's not making it unusable, it's just making life a little less pleasant, shall we say. The fact is, cobble streets, now that, uh, I hate them. As was mentioned before, I've done events, and after events, I'm usually carrying a large suitcase full of equipment for the event back home, and yeah, I hate cobble streets. But benches, though. Benches, as I say, a great thing for the elderly to be able to stop and rest, and other people with other physical disabilities as well. But if, say, you're a wheelchair user or you're somebody with a pram or something similar, and you're on a narrow street, that's street furniture narrowing the street, narrowing the path that you're trying to get through, it's in your way, it's blocking your way, it's making it harder for you to make that journey. So it's a negative for them. Some streets, all the times when you'll see benches, you often see them in between other objects. You'll see them in between some trees. So that space was, essentially, dead space anyway because of the trees. But the more objects we put in a street makes it more usable to some. Putting bins in the streets, that's something I didn't grow up with in London because of IRA bombings, we didn't have bins pretty much anywhere. But now we've got bins everywhere. And recycling bins, and it's great. But we've got them, and we've the plinths designed as way-finding devices, and we've got lots of lighting, and we've got lots of trees. And these are all great things, but they do narrow that space. And if you're less able bodied, that makes it quite difficult. Because if you're having to dodge and weave in between people, but you're in a wheelchair or you're using a walking stick, that's a very difficult experience. Maps and way-finding devices, great things. How many of you through the Old Street train station today? Really? That few? But most of you, I'm sure, are familiar with the Old Street Train Station. If you're coming out the barriers any time soon, or as you're approaching them, you'll notice there's a green line on the ground. There's a solid green line. There's no signage to it, no details. That line takes you to, I've forgotten-- - That's the one, yes, Moorfield Eye Hospital. Takes you all the way there. It's because the fact is, most people with visual impairment do have some level of vision. So seeing a solid black line is actually quite doable for most forms of visual impairment. And that is a way-finding device. It's very useful, it doesn't get in anybody's way. It has no negative side effects. So we've got the things like the maps that you see all over London. Some people I know think they're just a pretty thing that aren't that useful because we've all got maps on our phone. Well, London's full of hundreds of thousands of tourists who, for the most point, don't have data on their phone, or maybe that's changed today. Although not to some extent, and possibly not for long. Those people who don't have data on their phone, or people who's phone batteries have died, and suddenly they can find their way around. So those, it might sound like a minor thing and it might sound quite disconnected to what we're doing, but again, if you have cognition impairments, to be able to just go, "I'm here," is great. And if you're drunk and you're out in the street and your phone is dead and you know where you are, that might sound silly, but the fact is, one great thing for testing, being drunk is quite like a lot of disabilities. Alright? When I first started out my career, before I got into Web, I was working doing interaction design. And we designed physical devices. We designed Sat Nav units or remote controls for TVs, and the control panels for running machines, and things like that. And this company, and it may not have been the most professional thing, I'm not necessarily advising it, but there's a Schnapps room. All it was was a table and lots of different bottles of Schnapps. Once a week, the majority of the team would go in there, have, you know, three or four shots of Schnapps, and we'd test the things we'd been designing throughout the week. It worked really well! Again, I'm not necessarily condoning this, but it did work really well. There were also some people who didn't partake, but would go to the park for a bit beforehand to have a cigarette. But again, worked well for some things but not for others. Anyway, I'm gonna move on. Now, are you accessible? Yeah, it's a trick question. I'm assuming, most of the people in the room here, maybe you're involved with making websites or WebUp or apps or something digital. Now, let's say you've got your old text and your images, you've got your area rolls, everything's working on assisted devices. It's great. That's a job well done. And I do not want to belittle that in any way. It's hard work, and it's very important work. And let's say you've got all of your videos captioned, all your audio has transcripts, all those kind of bases are covered. You've done your job. But are there difficult interactions for people with motor issues? When it comes to copyrighting, have you avoided needlessly complex language? Have you avoided metaphors and similes, which are difficult for some cognitive issues, and people who are non-native speakers. Is there a clear information hierarchy and a clear information flow? Is information segregated clearly? These things might sound quite minor. They might sound like it's just causes a little bit of difficulty. But those issues, that accounts for 7% of the UK adult population, 4.5, if you cut it off at the age of 60, as quite a bit of that is age related. That's quite a lot of people, 4.5% of the UK population might be struggling to use your product even if it covers many of the big accessibility issues. For the most part, these aren't people necessarily can use your product, but will be struggling to. And if they're struggling to, they'll be put off using it. And maybe your product is not essential in their life, so they just don't use it. Maybe it is a product that's essential in their life, so they look for a competitor. Maybe there's no competitor, and they just hate you. So there's a lot of things to consider. Now, I'm gonna look at some text here. Now, how many people can read that okay? How many people understand it? No? Good, awesome. You know, there's technically nothing wrong with that piece of text. And you'll find that on the internet in some way, in different shapes and forms. But let's try and make it more accessible. First of all, we're gonna improve on the contrasts. That's helped a bit. That's a fairly obvious one. And now, we'll shorten the line length. That might seem not that important, but if you're designing responsive designs, and somebody's opening up on, like, I know people who've got open tier screens this wide and home, and they full-screen their browsers, because they're evil. But the fact is, they open up websites, and they'll get line notes which are 200 characters long. And it's not readable. These are particularly big issues for people who have issues such as dyslexia. Not all forms of dyslexia, but the majority. So that is quite an important thing. Maybe it's not best illustrated in this particular piece of text, but more so long form text. We'll increase the size, because, again, find out this one. Size, there's no say so. I should have mentioned on the character length, 50 to 60 characters is kind of what you should be aiming for for body copy, though that's including spaces. But if you can get shorter than that, something like 40, that's quite good. Because some of it's out of your control because different characters, different widths, and industries who want a space type for some reason. But the size, there's less of a safe rule. Because it really does depend on things like is your text enclosed in anything? Is it inside, say, a button, at which point it's more visually distinct, so it becomes a bit easier to read. What is the contrast like between the font and the background colour? What is the contrast like on the outerof the font on the various screens you're testing on? And what is the design of the individual font itself? Is it quite a thick character is it quite thin? So these things affect what kind of size you want to aim for. Generally, we're always using too small fonts. So we've upped it. And increase the line spacing. Again, this is quite an important one to people with things like dyslexia. Again, there's no hard and fast rules, because line spacing, what kind of line spacing you want is gonna depend hugely on what font you're using. Character spacing. Again, improve the readability a bit. Again, no hard and fast rules. You'll be obviously go and counting every character individually, but that's not gonna happen now. A lot of you probably still struggle with that sentence. We'll get there, we'll get there. Now, took off the italics. Again, it might seem like a minor thing, but it's a quote, which you might have guessed. Italics default sliding for Italics are quite hard for certain cognitive issues. Again, particularly dyslexia. So you get rid of that. Also, let's put it into more standardised English. Now, what you saw before, we should just go back to. That is an actual British dialect. That's Scots. That's not an accent, that is a full dialect in and of itself, spoken in the south of Scotland. You have Scottish Gaelic in the north of Scotland, which is completely different, and I can't speak a word of. My family are from the south of Scotland and they can't speak a word of Gaelic. Diversity is been, that's funny, whenever I try to do a Scottish accent I end up coming up sounding bad Jamaican, so I'm not gonna do it. I'm not, sorry. Anyway, but yeah, turn it into standardised English. Because whether you're doing a site in English, Italian, French, German, Dutch, Mandarin, Cantonese, well, simplified Chinese or traditional Chinese, actually, as it's written, but what you should aim for is not using slang, not using colloquialisms, using good grammar, because these kinds of things make life a lot easier for certain cognitive issues, make life much easier for non-native speakers, and also make life easier for translation tools because I can assure you Google translator has no idea what to do with that. You know, it's a language spoken by a few 100,000 people, but Google Translate doesn't know. It doesn't have a clue. It does know Scotch Gaelic, though, which isn't actually spoken by more people, but has more international recognition because it's more distinct from, well, it's completely distinct from English. Now, anyway, back to where we were going. Now, let's change it a bit more. Let's see, make some key words bold, indent it a bit. You know, you can do visual styling to your text, but try not to deform the text, things like italics. But bold, yes, underline, uh, not so great. Indenting, good. That's all fine. Breaking text out, like if you've got a big body of text, you've got quotes or you've got other bits of text which can be broken out from the main body, do that visually. It's a good thing. It makes it more readable to a lot of people. There we go, that took a while. So alt text is one of the big things that often gets brought up with accessibility. It's one of the things which tends to drive me a little crazy in the way people talk about it. So we're gonna talk about this lovely page here. What should the alt text be for it? It's a big image. You come to a certain page, I did a screen shot on a 21 inch iMac screen, one of the older ones, not really high res or anything. But still, a big screen computer. And full-screened, I couldn't actually get any content. I got the image and the headline and the sub. So clearly, that image must be very important to the story. What should it be? President of America as the alt text? Well, let's make it Donald Trump, President of America, because hopefully this article will be online long after he's impeached. Things change, hopefully. Unless he asks for another elections. But you know, that doesn't really tell me anything about this image. To a user on assisted technology, how's that giving them anything? Has it informed them anything about the story? No. It's quite useless, really. Now, there's quite a few services around the internet now trying to automate such things. They're analysing images, and working what's in them and adding alt text, which I find an interesting prospect. But imagine that this was done to this. There we go. So, flags. UK and US. Man. Probably. Blond. Wig. Smiling. Smugly. Suit. Misfitting. You know, actually, image recognition could guess a lot of these things. Maybe it's not all, but it's getting there. So this is what we could be left with. Would that be useful text? Your visually impaired user, have they gained anything by knowing what this man looks like? I know I haven't. And I can see him, unfortunately. Should that image, it's styling. It should be treated as such. There shouldn't be alt text on the image. Also, arguably, if there was appropriate alt text, don't write alt text, put a caption. Which I did have a caption, but again, the caption they had was nothing to do with the image. If we go back to it. Unfortunately, the United States can't escape Trump too easily. That doesn't, again, that caption doesn't tell me anything about the image, apart from that people are scared of him. A lot of images I see on the internet should not have alt text. Lots of them do. There are images that should, and it's important. But again, most of the ones that would benefit from having secondary text put it as a caption because if that information's useful, it's gonna be useful to other people. Because again, a lot of visually impaired people don't use screen readers. They don't use braille outputs. Some do, and some very much rely on them. But many just use things like pinch and zoom and audio descriptions side by side, but not full on assistive technology. So they'll see a caption if it's done clearly. And it may also enlighten other people who aren't familiar with the context of the article. One thing which I've seen a lot, particularly on news sites, is caption and alt text, and the caption the same as the alt text. So a person using assisted technology is having the same thing shouted at them twice. So that's even worse. Try not to, put it where it's needed. But don't do it just because you believe it should be done. To me, try not to think about disability. Think about exclusion. There's different forms of disability. You've got cognitive, visual, mobility and audio. But think about education, economic, language and connectivity. If I said I'm building a service and it can't be used by people with wheelchairs, I don't care, you'd all think I was evil, and I would be for the most part. But if I said I'm building a service and it can't be used by people who can't read English quite well, or it can't be used by people who haven't got a master's, or it can't be used by poor people, or it can't be used by the Dutch, or I said I've got a service and it can only be used in 4G, most people might laugh. But people wouldn't necessarily jump on that. But actually, you're excluding, often bigger, sometimes you would be excluding a common disability. Lots of people don't have fast internet connections, particularly if you're looking at a more global scale as opposed to the UK. Although, if we, again, look to Scotland, internet gets a bit patchier, particularly on the Isles. It's terrible, it goes out when it rains. But language, again, you're in London, one of the most diverse cities in the world. And even if you're building a website just for people in London, a quarter of those people, don't speak English. How well they read English, well, very hugely. So try and make it easy for them. And that doesn't mean having translations for every single language. It means just having clear, concise English, because that's what they've learned. They haven't learned to speak like someone from south London or Essex. They're not gonna cope with that. It's clear, concise English. It's easier for a lot of people, and also it can be translated easily by third parties. Again, as I say, imagine if I said poor people can't use my service. I'm evil. If I said people have to have the latest phone to use my service, that's okay. But that's the same message. If you're advocating for dropping all technology, think who it's cutting out and how big a section. But you're never going to be able to include everybody. But try as many as possible. When trying to provide inclusion, it's not about doing one to one translations of copy. It's not about if you got a photo describing exactly what's in the photo. Try and convey the meaning, the intent, the aesthetic and the emotion of the medium. Don't try and just give it a transcript, like, if you're giving a transcript of an interview, that's a good thing. But did the interview get heated? Were people arguing, were people shouting? Say those kinds of details. Give that emotion. That will take it from just being accessible to being inclusive. Now, accessibility isn't the job of the front end dev, which is kind of what we've been thrusting on people for years. It's the job of the front end dev, designers, copywriters, QA, backing developers, PMs and BAs. Dev ops kind of get off the hook on this one, I think. There is stuff there for everybody. To me, a big chunk of accessibility is the design. But again, that can't be done single-handedly. You need the support of the business for that. You need support of all those different roles. You could design something that's accessible, but then if you're QA isn't testing for it, it could get lost quite easily. Now, I'm gonna have some demos. This should be fun. Now, these are simulation gloves. They're made by Research Institute at Cambridge. There are ways to make similar things yourself on a tighter budget, but they are, should we say, a little less gerbil. But these are designed to simulate conditions such as arthritis in the hands. Obviously they don't simulate the pain. You'd have to put little tacks in there or something to do that. But they simulate the loss of mobility. Now, there's some. Here, there you go. Enjoy. Would you like to open that? - There should be something, somewhere. - Look at the expression in his face. I'm sure this is something that he's done many times before. - Oh. - You don't have the eat them, but if you can open the full packaging. Thank you. Now, you've been using these for about 40, 50 minutes now. - Yeah, probably. - And you've done a variety of tasks in that time. You've eaten some pizza, drunk some beer, used your phone, and now opened this. Would you mind sharing some of your experiences? - Well, it's weird, of course. At the beginning, you don't have the feeling like you can do everything, but you mostly can't. But at the same time, you don't have the feeling of how far can you go, so you try-- - You feel quite unsure in your motions. - Yeah, well, I mean, when you gave me this one, I wasn't sure how I would open it. - As you say, you can do most tasks, but you're slowed down a lot. As he said to me before, you ate one slice of pizza in the time Christiana ate four. - Yeah, but that's because she is very fast. - Well, there is that. But also, you having to do one task at a time. You ate pizza, then drunk beer. There was not drinking beer and eating pizza. - No, definitely not. - Indeed. It was very limiting, and were you using your phone? - Well, that's funny. It's just like doing this, like calling my father, like doing this and looking around. - And something like a pinch and zoom, maybe? - Yeah, probably pinch something. - Like pinching this way? - No, this one is almost, well, probably I can do something. - And you're using the phone two-handed. I'm guessing that's not how you normally use your phone. - No. - As you can see, everything's possible, but it's very hard work. It's slowing you down, it's making you unsure in what you're doing, making you unsure in your experiences. Consider that, if any of you are designing websites for mobile, or designing mobile apps or apps for other touch screen devices, if you've ever done Kiosks or tablet stuff, you've got users who feel like this when they open up your app for the first time. Now, you've got users who are maybe struggling like this the entire time they're using your app. So that's, obviously, quite a problem for some. And this is predominantly age-related, but you do have people with similar conditions throughout their entire life. So obviously if you are designing a product and you don't intend the elderly to use it, it's a small segment of your market. If you're designing a product that is to be used by all, that's actually quite a large segment of your market, particularly in the UK with its ageing population. Goddamn the NHS keeping them alive and voting. It's an important thing. I'm gonna take those off of you once we have the break. Somebody else would like to give them a try, just come and approach me. They take a few minutes to get on, so unfortunately not lots of people will be able to give them a go. If you do give them a go, there is more chocolate. It is quite a good challenge to do. Also, I'd like a little bit of feedback from the people with glasses on. - [Student] Incredibly frustrating. - How much could you see? You've got probably the most restrictive glasses. - [Student] Oh really? - I think so. Yeah, yeah, I'd say so. Although the tunnel vision ones kind of come in close as well, but in a different way. - [Student] They felt like I was being taken hostage. It's like a blindfold over your face. You can see parts of it, but you're missing a lot of information. My hearing was better because I didn't have my vision. But it was-- - Could you see where people were around you, like where I was standing and stuff? - [Student] Yeah. I could tell that you were there. I knew there was a shape there. - But you couldn't exactly necessarily say who, if it was someone you would recognise, you would be lost. - Yeah, it's fine because it makes, you do rely on your hearing a little more, we saw this thing between figures, who's talking and who's not. But I had to keep taking them off because I'm trying to take notes, and it was quite a nuisance what you could do. Anything, you just miss out on so much. My attention wasn't always there, because I could focus on your presentation, and so having a work clinic would be-- - So those were probably the least amount of vision out of all the glasses I've got. Out of the ones I could have brought with, they're not the most restrictive. But that's kind of at a level which is quite common. I didn't bring glasses that would have been, shall we say, a very, very small percentages of people. I stuck to things which account for the vast majority of people with visual impairment. Hello, you two. Could I get some feedback? These are tunnel vision, by the way. I think, if I remember, I t's either 35 or 45 degrees of vision, so very much the scene right in front. - [Student] Yeah, I can just see your head to maybe halfway down your torso. Yeah, so about that much. And I have to move around a lot to see. So I could see your presentation, only literally less than 1/6th of the screen. - You're kind of scanning across, back and forth. - [Student] And I can see or the wall right there. That's all I can see. - So you could consume all of it, but it became quite hard work. - [Student] Yeah, after a while, actually, my eyes got tired, and I closed my eyes and I almost feel asleep. - I'll play some more jazzy music next time. - [Student] I tried using my phone, and I either had to hold it really far away or right in front of me to see things. - Again, you could see, but it was very, very limiting. It was very restrictive. - [Student] The pinhole actually makes everything painfully sharp. I can see everything in almost perfect clarity in that amount, and also I have no depth perception, so every single time I try to pick up my can of Coke, I have to be really careful. I have no idea how far away it is. - So this kind of vision loss is quite common. A lot of times people see, they might see somebody walking down the street with a cane, and they're like, "Oh, it's a blind person." And then they see a person take out a mobile phone and start using it, like a touchscreen. And they're, like, "That person's not blind. "What bullshit is this?" But the fact of it is, as you say, the vision, in a very narrow angle, is still quite sharp, but just everything outside of that is a mystery. And as you say, your depth perception was seriously hindered, so again, finding your way around environments gets quite hard, particularly environments unfamiliar to you. If you were in your home, where you know where things are laid out, it becomes quite easy. But a new environment is a serious struggle. - No, no. I would say, trying to cover everybody is impossible. The fact is, there are times where actually making a product accessible for some will make it less accessible for others. For us in the digital world, not so often, but it can still happen. So let's say, and some things aren't automatically going to, if you do them, shall we say, a bit sloppily, so let's say you're adding a lot of alternative content to your site. You're adding transcripts, you're adding descriptions to everything. Suddenly, the site's getting bigger, but performance is getting worse. So now it's hindering people who have poor connections or people that only have mobile access on expensive 3G. You've got situations like this. You could make a site that's perfect, well, not perfectly accessible, but like 99.9% there, but it would be an incredibly large amount of work. So don't feel that, oh, I haven't hit, I would say the common things that people do, that people suggest to do, that's good, and that's good work. If you've accomplished that, you should still feel good about yourself. But there is always gonna be more. And it's very much a case of do whatever is easiest for your product, and also your skill set first, and then when you have time, when you have resources, add more. It won't be a thing that finishes. It'll never be a thing that finishes. And I'd say it's also cross-disciplinary. And a lot of teams don't necessarily have the full skill sets. A lot of teams don't have access to a good copywriter. But if you do, you can improve on things a bit, and such. Examples, quite simply, the fact is that even a lot of the sites I was using for doing the research, and the sites where I purchased some of these tools from, no, no, actually, as some of you may have saw, I attempted to sign my welcome. Actually, the sites that I was using for that, they don't scroll. So I couldn't actually use them on my laptop, because I only got half the page loading or less. I could only use them on my large screen desktop. And even then, it was difficult. That might not be quite an accessibility issue in some ways, but in a way it is because lots of people only have access to the internet on small screens. There's a lot of people who, now, only have at home a tablet, and these websites they weren't gonna work at all. I would have got no content from them whatsoever. Even on the big screen, there were times when I was having to go and inspect an element, and change the CSS so I could use the website. And these were sites from accessibility consultants. But there are accessibility consultants for the blind or for the deaf and not for anything else. So don't feel that you should try, you're failing if you haven't accomplished everything. No one's accomplished everything. It's a huge workload. But try and accomplish what's most relevant to your users. Because, as I say, with the example of the pavements, if you're designing for a nice, warm, sunny environment, curbs sliding down, lovely gradients everywhere. Designing for frosty, icy, snow conditions, be more constrained with that. You don't want big slips and cambers everywhere. Put some steps in. I've seen people skiing to work out there. It was weird. There's no perfect. There's never gonna be a perfect. Even the stuff I was talking about was relatively common forms of disability. But there's less common forms, particularly when you start looking at motor issues. You get people using a lot of very unique assistive devices. I'll send Christiana some links later so you can send them out with an email later, because I'm guessing you can do an email after the event. Some last things on people designing for people who use the sip and blow controls for people who've got full-body paralysis. One of the things actually got announced, I think, the other week, was Apple have provided lots of tools for integrating directly with the wheelchairs if you're designing mobile apps. So, people using the sit, blow controllers on the wheelchairs for full-body paralysis can actually get a good control over your app, whereas before, most of these things were just not usable, or they could use some basic apps which had voice control for everything, and that was it.